Emissions

Demonstration of a Regulatory Method for Aircraft Engine Nonvolatile PM Emissions Measurements with Conventional and Isoparaffinic Kerosene Fuels. P. Lobo, J. Condevaux, Z. Yu, J. Kuhlmann, D.E. Hagen, R.C. Miake-Lye, P.D. Whitefield, D.W. Raper. Energy and Fuels (2016), Vol. 30, No. 9, 7770-7777

Environmental Design Space Assessment of Continuous Lower Energy Emissions and Noise (CLEEN) Technologies. Dimitri Mavros, Jimmy C. Tai, Christopher Perullo. The PARTNER Project 36 final report. March 2016. Report number PARTNER-COE-2016-001.

Measurement of Aircraft Engine Non-volatile PM Emissions: Results from the Aviation - Particle Regulatory Instrumentation Demonstration Experiment (A-PRIDE) 4 Campaign. Lobo, P., Durdina, L., Smallwood, G.J., Rindlisbacher, T., Siegerist, F., Black, E.A., Yu, Z., Mensah, A.A., Hagen, D.E., Thomson, K.A., Miake-Lye, R.C., Brem, B.T., Corbin, J.C., Abegglen, M., Sierau, B., Whitefield, P.D., Wang, J., , Aerosol Science and Technology (2015), Vol. 49, No. 7, 472-484.

Health Impacts of Aviation-Related Air Pollutants. The PARTNER Project 11 final report. PARTNER Report No. PARTNER-COE-2015-001. (2015) Jonathan I. Levy, Hsiao-Hsien Hsu, Ying Zhou, Stefani Penn, Robin Dodson, David Diez, Gary Adamkiewicz, Jose Vallarino, Steven Melly, Elizabeth Kamai, E. Andres Houseman, Francesca Dominici, John D. Spengler. Health Impacts of Aviation-Related Air Pollutants. The PARTNER Project 11 final report. PARTNER Report No. PARTNER-COE-2015-001

Determination of PM mass emissions from an aircraft turbine engine using particle effective density. Durdina, L., Brem, B.T., Abegglen, M., Lobo, P., Rindlisbacher, T., Thomson, K.A., Smallwood, G.J., Hagen, D.E., Sierau, B., Wang, J., Atmospheric Environment (2014), Vol. 99, 500-507

PM Emissions Measurements of In-Service Commercial Aircraft Engines during the Delta-Atlanta Hartsfield Study. Lobo, P., Hagen, D. E., Whitefield, P. D., Raper, D.,  Atmospheric Environment (2015), Vol. 104, 237-245

Quantifying the climate impacts of albedo changes due to biofuel production: a comparison with biogeochemical effects. Caiazzo, F.,  Malina, R. ,  Staples, M. , Wolfe, P. / Yim, S. ,  Barrett, S.  In: Environmental Research Letters Vol. 9, 024015, 2014

Methodology for Calibration of ANGIM Subjected to Atmospheric Uncertainties. LeVine M., Bernardo J. E., Kirby, M., Mavris D., AIAA 2013-4321, 2013 Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference, Los Angeles, CA, August 12-14. 2013

Aviation 2006 NOx-induced effects on atmospheric ozone and HOx in Community Earth System Model (CESM), Khodayari A, Tilmes S, Olsen S, Phoenix D, Wuebbles D, Lamarque J-F, Chen C. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, in press, 2014

Using mobile monitoring to characterize roadway and aircraft contributions to ultrafine particle concentrations near a mid-sized airport. Hsu HH, Adamkiewicz G, Houseman EA, Spengler JD. Levy JI. Atmos Environ, in press

Quantifying the climate impacts of albedo changes due to biofuel production: a comparison with biogeochemical effects. Caiazzo F, Malina R, Staples M, Wolfe P, Yim S, Barrett S, Environmental Research Letters 9 024015

Using mobile monitoring to characterize roadway and aircraft contributions to ultrafine particle concentrations near a mid-sized airport, Hsu H.H., Adamkiewicz G., Houseman E.A., Spengler J.D., Levy J.I., Atmospheric Environment (2014), doi: 10.1016/ j.atmosenv.2014.02.023

Lifecycle greenhouse gas footprint and minimum selling price of renewable diesel and jet fuel from fermentation and advanced fermentation production technologies, Staples, M., Malina, R., Olcay, H., Pearlson, M., Hileman, J., Boies, A. ,Barrett, S., accepted for publication at Energy and Environmental Science, DOI: 10.1039/C3EE43655A

Economic and emissions impacts of renewable fuel goals for aviation in the US. Winchester, N., D. McConnachie, C. Wollersheim, I.A. Waitz (2013). Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 58, 116-128

A Probabilistic Ice Habit Model for LES of Contrails. Inamdar A.R., Lele S.K., Jacobson M.Z., (2013), AIAA Conference, Atmospheric and Space Environments

Assessment of Carbon Dioxide Emission Metric Systems for an Aircraft Certification Standard. Lim, D., Kirby, M., Nam, T., Burdette, G., Yutko, B., Hansman, R., Mozdzanowska, A., and Bonnefoy, P., accepted to AIAA Journal of Aircraft; in press.

Assessment of Notional CO2 Certification Standard Applicability Requirements for Future Commercial Aircraft. Kirby, M., Lim, D., Nam, T., Burdette, G., Boling, B., AIAA 2013-4411, 2013 Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference, Los Angeles, CA, August 12-14. 2013.

A plume-in-grid approach to characterize air quality impacts of aircraft emissions at the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Rissman, J., Arunachalam, S., Woody, M., West, J. J., BenDor, T., and Binkowski, F. S., (2013), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9285-9302, doi:10.5194/acp-13-9285-2013.

Equity and Health Impacts of Aircraft Emissions at the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Rissman, J., S. Arunachalam, T. Bendor and J.J. West, (2013). Landscape and Urban Planning, In Press.

Temporal and spatial variability in the aviation NOx-related O3 impact, Gilmore, C.K., Barrett, S., Koo, J., Wang, Q., (2013) Environmental Research Letters.

Development of a response surface model of aviation's air quality impacts in the United States. Ashok, A, Lee, I., Arunachalam, S., Waitz, I., Yim, S., Barrett, S., (2013), Atmos. Environ., Vol. 77, 445-452.

Spatial sensitivities of human health risk to intercontinental and high-altitude pollution. Jamin Koo, Wang, Q., Henzeb, D., Waitz, I, Barrett, S., (2013), Atmos. Environ., Vol. 77, 445-452.

Impacts of aircraft emissions on the air quality near the ground. Lee, H., S. C. Olsen, D. J. Wuebbles, and D. Youn, (2013), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5505-5522, doi:10.5194/acp-13-5505-2013.

Comparison of model estimates of the effects of aviation emissions on atmospheric ozone and methane. Olsen, S. C., G. P. Brasseur, D. J. Wuebbles, S. R. H. Barrett, H. Dang, S. D. Eastham, M. Z. Jacobson, A. Khodayari, H. Selkirk, A. Sokolov, N. Unger, Submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett. (2013).

Evaluation of aviation NOx-induced radiative forcings for 2005 and 205. Khodayari, A., S. C., Olsen, Wuebbles,D.J., submitted to Atmos. Environ. (2013)

Comparison of global 3-D aviation emissions datasets, Olsen, S. C., D. J. Wuebbles, and B. Owen, (2013), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 429–441

The effects of aircraft on climate and pollution. Part II: 20-year impacts of exhaust from all commercial aircraft worldwide treated individually at the subgrid scale. Jacobson, M.Z., J.T. Wilkerson, A.D. Naiman, and S.K. Lele, Faraday Discussions (2013)

Secondary organic aerosol produced from aircraft emissions at the Atlanta Airport: An advanced diagnostic investigation using process analysis. Woody, M., and S. Arunachalam (2013), Atmospheric Environment 76:101-109, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.06.007

Contributions of aircraft arrivals and departures to ultrafine particle counts near Los Angeles International Airport. Hsu HH, Adamkiewicz G, Houseman EA, Zarubiak D, Spengler JD, Levy J, Sci Tot Environ 444: 347-355 (2013)

Statistical approaches for identifying air pollutant mixtures associated with aircraft departures at Los Angeles International Airport. Diez DM, Dominici F, Zarubiak D, Levy JI.Environ Sci Technol 46: 8229−8235 (2012)

Impact of Alternative Fuels on Emissions Characteristics of a Gas Turbine Engine - Part 1: Gaseous and Particulate Matter Emissions. Lobo, P., Rye, L., Williams, P. I., Christie, S., Uryga-Bugajska, I., Wilson, C. W., Hagen, D. E., Whitefield, P. D., Blakey, S., Coe, H., Raper, D., and Pourkashanian, M., Environmental Science and Technology (2012), Vol. 46, No. 19, 10805-10811.

Impact of Alternative Fuels on Emissions Characteristics of a Gas Turbine Engine - Part 2: Volatile and Semi-volatile Particulate Matter Emissions. Williams, P. I., Allan, J.D., Lobo, P., Coe, H., Christie, S., Wilson, C., Hagen, D., Whitefield, P., Raper, D., and Rye, L.,Environmental Science and Technology (2012), Vol. 46, No. 19, 10812-10819.

Inadequacy of Optical Smoke Measurements for Characterisation of Non-Light Absorbing Particulate Matter Emissions from Gas Turbine Engines. Rye, L., Lobo, P., Williams, P. I., Uryga-Bugajska, I., Christie, S., Wilson, C., Hagen, D., Whitefield, P., Blakey, S., Coe, H., Raper, D., and Pourkashanian, M., Combustion Science and Technology (2012), Vol., 184, No. 12,

Measurement and analysis of Aircraft Engine PM Emissions downwind of an active runway at the Oakland International Airport, Lobo, P., Hagen, D.E., and Whitefield, P.D., , 2012, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 61, 114-123.

CO2 Emission Metrics for Commercial Aircraft Certification: A National Airspace System Perspective. Jose Bernardo, Bryan Boling, Philippe A. Bonnefoy, Graham Burdette, R. John Hansman, Michelle Kirby, Dongwook Lim, Dimitri Mavris, Aleksandra Mozdzanowska, Taewoo Nam, Holger Pfaender, Ian A. Waitz, Brian Yutko, A PARTNER Project 30 Findings Report.  Report No. PARTNER-COE-2012-002 Download (pdf 3M)

Environmental Cost-Benefit Analysis of Ultra Low Sulfur Jet Fuel. The PARTNER Project 27 Final Report. Christopher K. Gilmore, Steven R. H. Barrett, Steve H. L. Yim, Lee T. Murray, Stephen R. Kuhn, Amos P. K. Tai, Robert M. Yantosca, Daewon W. Byun, Fong Ngan, Xiangshang Li, Jonathan I. Levy, Akshay Ashok, Jamin Koo, Hsin Min Wong, Olivier Dessens, Sathya Balasubramanian, Gregg G. Fleming, Matthew N. Pearlson, Christoph Wollersheim, Robert Malina,, Sarav Arunachalam, Francis S. Binkowski, Eric M. Leibensperger, Daniel J. Jacob, James I. Hileman, Ian A. Waitz, Report No. PARTNER-COE-2011-006 Download (pdf 8.5M)

Comparison of PM Emissions from a Commercial Jet Engine burning Conventional, Biomass, and Fischer-Tropsch Fuels. Lobo, P., Hagen, D.E., and Whitefield, P.D., Environmental Science and Technology (2011), Vol. 45, No. 24, 10744-10749

Combustion Products of Petroleum Jet Fuel, a Fischer-Tropsch Fuel, and a Biomass Fatty Acid Ester Fuel for a Gas Turbine Engine. Timko, M. T.; Herndon, S. C.; de la Rosa Blanco, E.; Wood, E. C.; Yu, Z.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Knighton, W. B.; Shafer, L.; DeWitt, M.; Corporan, E., Combustion Science and Technology (2011), Vol.183, 1039–1068

Assessment of CO2 Emission Metrics for a Commercial Aircraft Certification Requirement. Report No. PARTNER-COE-2011-002. A PARTNER Project 30 interim report. Philippe A. Bonnefoy, Graham Burdette, Thomas Carroll, R. John Hansman, James Hileman, Steven Isley, Michelle Kirby, Dongwook Lim, Dimitri Mavris, Aleksandra Mozdzanowska, Taewoo Nam, Sheldon Smith, Robert Taylor, Ian A. Waitz, Robert Willett, J. Scott Wilson, Brian Yutko, December 2010. Download (pdf 6.7M)

Current and Future Particulate-Matter-Related Mortality Risks in the United States from Aviation Emissions During Landing and Takeoff. Risk Analysis. Levy, J. I., Woody, M., Baek, B. H., Shankar, U. and Arunachalam, S. (2011),. doi: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2011.01660.

SAE E31 Methodology Development and Associated PM Emissions Characteristics of Aircraft APUs burning Conventional and Alternative Aviation Fuels. Report No. PARTNER-COE-2011-005. The PARTNER Project 34 Final Report. Prem Lobo, Philip D. Whitefield, Donald E. Hagen, Lucas J. Rye, Simon Blakey, Christopher W. Wilson, Paul I. Williams, Simon Christie, David Raper, Ilona Uryga-Bugajska, Mohamed Pourkashanian, July 2011. Download (pdf 88K)

Use of Isotopic Measurement and Analysis Approach to Uniquely Relate Aircraft Emissions to Changes in Ambient Air Quality. The PARTNER Project 33 Final Report.Mark H. Thiemens, June 2011. Report No. PARTNER-COE-2011-003. Download (pdf 1.1M)

The Impact of Climate Policy on US Aviation. A PARTNER Project 31 report. Niven Winchester, Christoph Wollersheim, Regina Clewlow, Nicolas C. Jost, Sergey Paltsev, John M. Reilly, Ian A. Waitz, May 2011. Report No. PARTNER-COE-2011-001. Download (pdf 656K)

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Alternative Jet Fuels (Version 1.2).  Report No. PARTNER-COE-2010-001. A PARTNER Project 28 report. Russell W. Stratton, Hsin Min Wong, James I. Hileman, June 2010. Download (pdf 5.3M)

Aircraft Impacts on Local and Regional Air Quality in the United States. Report No. PARTNER-COE-2009-002. Final report of PARTNER Project 15. Gayle Ratliff, Christopher Sequeira, Ian Waitz, Melissa Ohsfeldt, Theodore Thrasher, Michael Graham, Terence Thompson,  October 2009. Download (pdf 7.6M)

High-Priority Compounds Associated with Aircraft Emissions: PARTNER Project 11 final report on subtask: Health Risk Prioritization of Aircraft Emissions Related Air Pollutants. Jonathan Levy, Hsiao-Hsien Hsu, Steven Melly, October 2008. Report No. PARTNER-COE-2008-008 Download (pdf 3M)

Climate Impacts of Aviation: PARTNER Project 12 final report on subtask: Large Eddy Simulations of Contrails. Sanjiva K. Lele, Richard C. Miake-Lye, September 2008. Report No. PARTNER-COE-2008-007 Download (pdf 2.8M)

Delta - Atlanta Hartsfield (UNA-UNA) Study. Prem Lobo, Philip D. Whitefield, Donald E. Hagen, Max B. Trueblood, Nathan L. Mundis, Ian P. Magdits, Scott C. Herndon, Tim Onasch, John T. Jayne, Richard C. Miake-Lye, Wynn L. Eberhard, Roger Wayson, February 2008. Report No. PARTNER-COE-2008-002 Download (pdf 2.7M)

A plume-in-grid approach to characterize air quality impacts of aircraft emissions at the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, Rissman, J., Arunachalam, S., Woody, M., West, J. J., BenDor, T., and Binkowski, F. S, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 13, 1089-1132, doi:10.5194/acpd-13-1089-2013, 2013.

Current and Future Particulate-Matter-Related Mortality Risks in the United States from Aviation Emissions During Landing and Takeoff. Risk Analysis. Levy, J. I., Woody, M., Baek, B. H., Shankar, U. and Arunachalam, S. (2011), doi: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2011.01660.x

An Assessment of Aviation's Contribution to Current and Future Fine Particulate Matter in the United States, Matthew Woody, Bok HaengBaek, Zachariah Adelman, Mohammed Omary, Yun Fat Lam, J. Jason West, Saravanan Arunachalam, Atmospheric Environment (2011), doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.03.041.

Effect of Chemistry-Transport Model Scale and Resolution on Population Exposure to PM2.5 from Aircraft Emissions during Landing and Takeoff. Arunachalam, S., Wang, B., Davis, N., Baek, B.H., Levy, J.I., Atmospheric Environment (2011), doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.03.029

Development of an Interface for the Emissions Dispersion and Modeling System (EDMS) with the SMOKE Modeling System. Baek, B.H., S. Arunachalam, A. Holland, Z. Adelman, A. Hanna, T. Thrasher, and P. Soucacos (2007), In Proceedings of the 16th Annual Emissions Inventory Conference - “Emissions Inventories: Integration, Analyses and Communication," Raleigh, NC, May 2007.

An Improved Method to Represent Aviation Emissions in Air Quality Modeling Systems and their Impacts on Air Quality. Arunachalam, S., B.H. Baek, A. Holland, Z. Adelman, F.S. Binkowski, A. Hanna, T. Thrasher and P. Soucacos (2008) In Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology, New Orleans, LA, Jan 2008 http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/135626.pdf (pdf 336K)

Multiscale Simulations and Analyses of Impacts of Aviation Emissions on Ambient Air Quality, Arunachalam, S. (2008), Presented at the OMEGA International Conference on Airport Air Quality, Royal Aeronautical Society, London, October 2008 http://omega.mmu.ac.uk/Air-Quality-Conference/Sarav%20Arunachalam.pdf (pdf 1.4MB)

A Modeling Study to Assess Air Quality Impacts of Air Toxics from Aircraft and other Sources at an Urban Airport – Case Study for Providence – T.F. Green. Arunachalam, S., B.H. Baek, F.S. Binkowski, B. Wang, Neil Davis, A. Hanna, and W. F. Hutzell (2008), presented at the CRC Mobile Source Air Toxics Workshop, Dec 2008

An Enhanced Sub-grid Scale Approach to Characterize Air Quality Impacts of Aircraft Emissions, Air Pollution Modeling and its Application XXII. Arunachalam, S., M. Woody, J. Rissman, F.S. Binkowski, H.-W. Wong, S. Jathar and A. Robinson (2012). NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security 4, Springer, The Netherlands, 2012.

An Investigation of the Impacts of Aviation Emissions on Future Air Quality and Health. Arunachalam, S., M. Woody, BH Baek, U Shankar and JI Levy, (2011), D.G. Steyn and S.T. Castelli (eds.), Air Pollution Modeling and its Application XXI, NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security 4, DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-1359-8_108, Springer, The Netherlands, 2011.

Comparing monitoring-based and modeling-based approaches for evaluating Black Carbon contributions from a U.S. airport. Arunachalam, S., A. Valencia, D. Yang, N. Davis, BH Baek, R Dodson, EA Houseman and JI Levy, (2011). D.G. Steyn and S.T. Castelli (eds.), Air Pollution Modeling and its Application XXI, NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security 4, DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-1359-8_102, Springer, The Netherlands, 2011.

The Influence of Chemistry Transport Model Scale and Resolution on Population Exposure due to Aircraft Emissions from Three Airports in the United States, Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application XX. Arunachalam, S., B.H. Baek, H.-H. Hsu, B. Wang, N. Davis, and JI Levy (2010), D.G. Steyn; Rao, S. T. (Eds.) 2010, XLVII, 592 p., ISBN 978-90-481-3810-4, Springer, The Netherlands, 2010.

Sensitivity of Meteorological Inputs to Assessing Incremental Impacts of Aviation Emissions on Regional Air Quality. Arunachalam, S., M. Woody, K. Talgo, N. Davis and A. Xiu, 2013. Presented at the 1st CMAS South America Conference, Sao Paulo, Brazil, February 2013.

Cost-effective dynamical downscaling: An illustration of downscaling CESM with the WRF Model. Bowden, J.H., S. Arunachalam. Presented at the 93rd Annual Meeting of the American Meteorological Society, Austin, TX, Jan 6-10, 2013.

Modeling Aircraft Emissions for Regional-scale Air Quality: Adapting a New Global Aircraft Emissions Database for the U.S. Arunachalam, S., B.H. Baek, P.L. Vennam, M. Woody, M. Omary, F.S. Binkowski and G. Fleming, 2012. Presented at the Fall Annual Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, San Francisco, CA, Dec 3-7, 2012.

Simulating the Contributions from Aircraft Emissions to Organic Aerosols Using the Volatility Basis Set. Woody, M., S. Arunachalam, F.S. Binkowski, J.J. West, S. Jathar, and A.L. Robinson, 2012. Presented at the Fall Annual Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, San Francisco, CA, Dec 3-7, 2012.

The Effects of Airport Activity on Black Carbon Concentrations Near Runways at Los Angeles International Airport. Penn, S.L., S. Arunachalam, and J.I. Levy, 2012. Presented at the 22nd Annual Meeting of Exposure Science, Seattle, WA, October 28 - November 1, 2012.

Aircraft Emissions Contribution to Organic Aerosols using the Volatility Basis Set. Woody, M., S. Arunachalam, J.J. West, F.S. Binkowski, S. Jathar, and A. Robinson, 2012. Presented at the 11th Annual Models-3 CMAS Users Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, Oct 2012.

An Assessment of Aviation-related Hazardous Air Pollutants from a U.S. airport using CMAQ, In Proceedings of the 10th Annual Models-3. Vennam, L.P., W. Vizuete and S. Arunachalam (2011). CMAS Users Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, Oct 2011.

An Enhanced Sub-grid Scale Approach to Characterize Air Quality Impacts of Aircraft Emissions at the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Woody, M., J. Rissman, F.S. Binkowski, J.J. West and S. Arunachalam (2011), In Proceedings of the 10th Annual Models-3 CMAS Users Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, Oct 2011.

Evaluation of EDMS / AERMOD at Los Angeles International Airport. Davis, N., K. Talgo and S. Arunachalam (2010). In Proceedings of the 9th Annual Models-3 CMAS Users Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, Oct 2010.

A Comparison of CMAQ Predicted Contributions to PM2.5 from Aircraft Emissions to CMAQ Results Post-Processed Using the Speciated Modeled Attainment Test. Woody, M., S. Arunachalam, J. J. West, and U. Shankar (2010), In Proceedings of the 9th Annual Models-3 CMAS Users Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, Oct 2010.

Evaluating the Impact of the US Aviation Sector on Exceedances of the SO2, NO2, O3, and PM2.5 Primary Standards. Rissman, J., S. Arunachalam, and J.J. West (2010). In Proceedings of the 9th Annual Models-3 CMAS Users Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, Oct 2010.

PM2.5-related health risks from aircraft emissions – a case study of the influence of chemistry-transport model scale and resolution at three U.S. Airports. Arunachalam S, Baek BH, Wang B, Davis N, Woody M, Levy JI (2009). Presented at the Society for Risk Analysis Annual Meeting, Dec 6-9 2009, Baltimore, MD.

A Hybrid CMAQ and AERMOD Approach to Investigate the Impact of Airports on Local Air Quality. Davis, N., and S. Arunachalam (2009). In Proceedings of the 8th Annual Models-3/CMAS Users Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, Oct 2009.

MCIP2AERMOD: A new prototype tool for preparing meteorological inputs for AERMOD. Davis, N., S. Arunachalam and R. Brode (2008). In Proceedings of the 7th Annual Models-3/CMAS Users Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, Oct 2008.